One way or another, this expression probably can be found in about every language in the world because the underlying metaphysical uneasiness it evoks is universal.
One may wonder if it ever existed one single individual who didn't -at least once in his/her lifetime- ask oneself if life was worth living or how absurd existence was.
Time means duration for us and the perception of duration can greatly vary according to our activity and our grasp of reality. Duration can be hurtful, very painful indeed since it places ourselves in front of the vacuity of our lives and the hopelessness we're confronted with.
The desire to kill time arises from the feeling that Time is the cause of our torments and therefore the enemy par excellence we must get rid of.
Hinduists long after the end of Samsara in order to get free from the cycle of repetitions. And all religions promise that real life pertains to another world where time no longer rules our lives and where suffering no longer exists.
Everyone has been in the situation of this woman in the painting by E. Hopper, waiting for someone to arrive or maybe not even waiting after someone but waiting, simply waiting for time to pass by.
Life swings like a pendulum backward and forward between pain and boredom.
The expression to kill time only shows how deeply we know that life in its very essence means pain and suffering. Otherwise the expression wouldn't exist.